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## CALCULATION OF DRUG DOSAGES

This worktext is designed for students in professional and vocational schools of nursing and for nurses returning to practice after being away from the clinical setting. It can be used in the classroom or for individual study. The worktext contains an extensive review of basic mathematics to assist students who have not mastered the subject in previous educational experiences. It can also be used by those who have not attended school for a number of years and feel a lack of confidence in the area of mathematics computations.

A pretest precedes each chapter in Parts One and Two and may be used for evaluating present skills. For those students who are comfortable with basic mathematics, a quick assessment of each area will confirm their competency in the subject matter.
Part Two begins with the use of the metric system, which is predominant in the medical field. The apothecary system continues to decline in use to the point of being almost extinct. However, in remembering that differences in practice exist throughout the United States and the world, it was felt that some of that content should remain in the book. Therefore it has been placed in the Appendix for reference. A new Chapter 7 has been added with the emphasis on calculations used in patient assessments.
Part Three helps students prepare for the actual calculation of drug dosages. The new Chapter 8 has combined material from all previous chapters and discusses various points concerning patient safety as it relates to medication administration. This chapter also includes safety issues for the nurse in the dispensing of medication. The case scenarios really emphasize the importance of delivering the correct medication to the patient as ordered. Chapter 9 provides an emphasis on the interpretation of the physician’s orders, and Chapter 10 explains how to read medication labels.
Part Four has been renamed the Calculation of Drug Dosages. As students begin their clinical experiences, they start with basic medical-surgical patients. Therefore the content moves from oral to parenteral, units, reconstitution, and, finally, intravenous flow rates. Beginning in Part Four, we have added substantial content on dimensional analysis as a method for solving problems of drug calculations. This method has become the preferred method of use by numerous schools of nursing.
However, many schools are remaining with the ratio/proportion or formula methods. Examples of each type of calculation are now shown first with dimensional analysis followed by the proportion and formula methods. The division of the three methods will allow instructors to target the area of study they prefer for their students and/or schools.
The actual drug labels have been updated and increased in number in all chapters that discuss the calculation of drug dosages. Also in Part Four, we have separated and expanded the content for dosages measured in units (Chapter 13) and the reconstitution of medications (Chapter 14). These are two separate concepts and are sometimes difficult for students to understand. This separation allows for extended practice and attention to each chapter’s content.
More medications are being delivered to patients via the intravenous route, not only in intensive care units but in progressive care and medical-surgical areas as well. Therefore, in addition to Chapter 15, Intravenous Flow Rates, a new Chapter 16, Intravenous Flow Rates for Dosages Measured in Units, has been added. Chapter 17 remains focused on Critical Care Intravenous Flow Rates. Chapter 18, Pediatric Dosages, continues to include oral, parenteral, and intravenous flow rate problems. Chapter 19, Obstetric Dosages, remains to address the calculation in regards to obstetric patients.
The majority of the calculation problems relating to drug dosages continue to represent actual physicians’ orders in various health care settings.

FEATURES IN THE TENTH EDITION

Learning objectives are listed at the beginning of each chapter so students will know the goals that must be achieved.
Chapter worksheets provide the opportunity to practice solving realistic problems.
Almost every chapter contains two posttests designed to evaluate the student’s learning.
A comprehensive post-test at the end of the book will help students assess their total understanding of the process of calculation of drug dosages.
A glossary is included to define important terms.
Numerous full-color drug labels continue to provide a more realistic representation of medication administration.
NEW! Chapter 13, Dosages Measured in Units, and Chapter 14, Reconstitution of Medications, have been divided into two separate chapters.

ANCILLARIES

Evolve resources for instructors and students can be found online at http://evolve.elsevier.com/ Ogden/calculation/
The instructor resources are designed to help instructors present the material in this text and include the following:

Drug Label glossary
TEACH Lesson Plan
TEACH Lecture Outlines
TEACH PowerPoint Slides
Test Bank

NEW VERSION! Drug Calculations Comprehensive Test Bank, version 4. This generic test bank contains over 700 questions on general mathematics, converting within the same system of measurements, converting between different systems of measurement, oral dosages, parenteral dosages, flow rates, pediatric dosages, IV calculations, and more.
Student Resources provide students with additional tools for learning and include the following:

Student Practice Problems and Learning Activities
Flash Cards

NEW VERSION! Drug Calculations Companion, version 5. This is a completely updated, interactive student tutorial that includes an extensive menu of various topic areas within drug calculations, such as oral, parenteral, pediatric, and intravenous calculations. it contains over 600 practice problems covering ratio and proportion, formula, and dimensional analysis methods.