Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations 4th edition (Thomas M. Devlin)

Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations 4th edition (Thomas M. Devlin)

Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations 4th edition (Thomas M. Devlin)

The purposes of the fourth edition of the Textbook of Biochemistry With Clinical Correlations remain unchanged from the earlier editions: to present a clear discussion of the biochemistry of mammalian cells; to relate the biochemical events at the cellular level to the physiological processes occurring in the whole animal; and to cite examples of deviant biochemical processes in human disease.

The continued rapid advances in knowledge, particularly due to the techniques of molecular biology, required a critical review and evaluation of the entire content of the previous edition. Every chapter has been revised and updated. Significant additions of new material, clarifications, and some deletions were made throughout. Amino acid metabolism was combined into a single chapter and DNA structure and function was divided into two chapters for better coverage of this rapidly expanding field. Topics for inclusion were selected to cover the essential areas of both biochemistry and physiological chemistry for upper­level undergraduate, graduate­level and especially professional school courses in biochemistry. Since the application of biochemistry is so important to human medicine, the text has an overriding emphasis on the biochemistry of mammalian cells.

The textbook is written such that any sequence considered most appropriate by an instructor can be presented. It is not formally divided into major sections, but related topics are grouped together. After an introductory chapter on cell structure, Chapters 2 to 5 concern the Major Structural Components of Cells, that is, proteins and their many functions, and cell membranes and their major roles. Metabolism is discussed in the following eight chapters, starting with the conservation of energy, then the synthesis and degradation of the major cellular components, and concluding with a chapter on the integration of these pathways in humans. The next section of six chapters covers Information Transfer and Its Control, describing the structure and synthesis of the major cellular macromolecules, that is, DNA, RNA, and protein. A separate chapter on Biotechnology is included because information from this area has had such a significant impact on the development of our current state of biochemical knowledge. The section concludes with a chapter on the Regulation of Gene Expression in which mechanisms in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes are presented. The fourth major section represents Signal Transduction and Amplification and includes two chapters on hormones that emphasize their biochemical functions as messengers and a chapter on Molecular Cell Biology describes four major mammalian signal transducing systems. The textbook concludes with six chapters on topics that comprise Physiological Chemistry, including cytochrome P450 enzymes and xenobiotic metabolism, iron and heme metabolism, gas transport and pH regulation, digestion and absorption, and human nutrition.

A major addition from previous editions is the extensive use of color in the illustrations as a means to emphasize important points. All figures were reviewed and new drawings were prepared to illustrate the narrative discussion. In many cases the adage ''A picture is worth a thousand words" is appropriate and the reader is encouraged to study the illustrations because they are meant to illuminate often confusing aspects of a topic.

In each chapter the relevancy of the topic to human life processes are presented in Clinical Correlations, which describe the aberrant biochemistry of disease states. A number of new correlations have been included. The correlations are not intended to review all of the major diseases but rather to cite examples of disease processes where the biochemical implications are well established. In addition, we specifically avoided presenting clinical case reports because it was considered more significant to deal with the general clinical condition. References are included to facilitate exploration of the topic in more detail. In some cases similar clinical problems are presented in different chapters, but each from a different perspective. All pertinent biochemical information is presented in the main text, and an understanding of the material does not require a reading of the correlations. In a few cases, clinical discussions are part of the principal text because of the close relationship of some topics to medical conditions.

Each chapter concludes with a set of Questions and Answers; the multiple­choice format was retained as being valuable to students for self­assessment of their knowledge. The question type was limited to the types now occurring in national examinations. All questions were reviewed and many new ones added. The questions cover a range of topics in each chapter, and each has an annotated answer, with references to the page in the textbook covering the content of the question.

The appendix, Review of Organic Chemistry, is designed as a ready reference for the nomenclature and structures of organic molecules encountered in biochemistry and is not intended as a comprehensive review of organic chemistry. The material is presented in the Appendix rather than at the beginning of those chapters dealing with the metabolism of each class of organic molecules. The reader might find it.

valuable to become familiar with the content and then use the Appendix as a ready reference when reading related sections in the main text.

We still believe that a multicontributor textbook is the best approach to achieve an accurate and current presentation of biochemistry. Each author is involved actively in teaching biochemistry in a medical or graduate school and has an active research interest in the field in which he or she has written. Thus, each has the perspective of the classroom instructor, with the experience to select the topics and determine the emphasis required for students in a course of biochemistry. Every contributor, however, brings to the book an individual approach, leading to some differences in presentation. However, every chapter was critically edited and revised in order to have a consistent writing style and to eliminate repetitions and redundancies. A limited repetition of some topics in different chapters was permitted when it was considered that the repetition would facilitate the learning process.

The individual contributors were requested to prepare their chapters for a teaching book. The book is not intended as a compendium of biochemical facts or a review of the current literature, but each chapter contains sufficient detail on the subject to make it useful as a resource. Each contributor was requested not to refer to specific researchers; our apologies to those many biochemists who rightfully should be acknowledged for their outstanding research contributions to the field of biochemistry.

Each chapter contains a Bibliography that can be used as an entry point to the research literature.

In any project one person must accept the responsibility for the final product. The decisions concerning the selection of topics and format, reviewing the drafts, and responsibility for the final checking of the book were entirely mine. I welcome comments, criticisms, and suggestions from the students, faculty, and professionals who use this textbook. It is our hope that this work will be of value to those embarking on the exciting experience of learning biochemistry for the first time and to those who are returning to a topic in which the information is expanding so rapidly.

Contents in Brief

1 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
2 Proteins I: Composition and Structure
3 Proteins II: Structure­Function Relationships in Protein Families
4 Enzymes: Classification, Kinetics, and Control
5 Biological Membranes: Structure and Membrane Transport
6 Bioenergetics and Oxidative Metabolism
7 Carbohydrate Metabolism I: Major Metabolic Pathways and their Control
8 Carbohydrate Metabolism II: Special Pathways
9 Lipid Metabolism I: Utilization and Storage of Energy in Lipid Form
10 Lipid Metabolism II: Pathways of Metabolism of Special Lipids
11 Amino Acid Metabolism
12 Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotide Metabolism
13 Metabolic Interrelationships
14 DNA I: Structure and Conformation
15 DNA II: Repair, Synthesis, and Recombination
16 RNA: Structure, Transcription, and Processing
17 Protein Synthesis: Translation and Posttranslational Modifications
18 Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology
19 Regulation of Gene Expression
20 Biochemistry of Hormones I: Polypeptide Hormones
21 Biochemistry of Hormones II: Steroid Hormones
22 Molecular Cell Biology
23 Biotransformations: The Cytochromes P450
24 Iron and Heme Metabolism
25 Gas Transport and pH Regulation
26 Digestion and Absorption of Basic Nutritional Constituents
27 Principles of Nutrition I: Macronutrients
28 Principles of Nutrition II: Micronutrients
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