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Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry Damia Barcelo 

Analysis, Fate and Removal of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle, Volume 50 

Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry Damia Barcelo

Pharmaceuticals are a diverse group of chemicals used in veterinary medicine, agricultural practices, human health and cosmetic care. Many are highly bioactive, most are polar, many are optically active, and all (when present in the environment) occur usually at no more than trace concentrations.
Pharmaceuticals are a class of new, so-called ‘‘emerging’’ contam-inants that have raised great concern in the last years. Pharmaceuticals have deserved attention (i) because of continuous introduction via effluents from sewage treatment facilities and from septic systems. They are referred to as ‘‘pseudo’’ persistent contaminants (i.e. high transformation/removal rates are compensated by their continuous in-troduction into environment) (ii) they are developed with the intention of performing a biological effect, (iii) often have the same type of phy-sico-chemical behaviour as other harmful xenobiotics (persistence in order to avoid the substance to be inactive before having a curing effect, and lipophilicity in order to be able to pass membranes) and (iv) they are used by man in rather large quantities (i.e. similar to those of many pesticides).
The continuous introduction of pharmaceuticals and their bioactive metabolites into the environment may lead to a high long-term con-centrations and promote continual, but unnoticed adverse effects on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Attention is being paid during the last few years to develop a better understanding of the toxicology issues including low-dose multi-generational exposure to multiple chemical stressors and how human and ecological risks might be affected by these chemical cocktails.
The main objectives of this book is to provide the reader with a well-founded overview of the state of the art of the analytical methods for trace determination of pharmaceuticals in the environmental samples, and to give a review of the fate and occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle (elimination in wastewater and drinking water Editor’s preface
treatment), including latest developments in the treatment technolo-gies, such as membrane bioreactors, advance oxidation and natural at-tenuation processes.
To reach these objectives the book includes a concise and critical compilation of the information published in the last years regarding all analytical aspects of the trace determination of pharmaceutical resi-dues in the environmental samples, including advanced technologies for sample preparation of aqueous and solid samples, clean up protocols and analysis The analytical methodology for the determination of trace pharmaceuticals in complex environmental matrices is still evolving and the number of methods described in the literature has grown con-siderably. Ten years ago GC/MS with derivatisation was the method of choice due to the possibility to go as low as low nanogram per liter level. Nowadays, LC/MS/MS and hybrid MS systems involving time of flight (TOF) and other analyzers is the method of choice due to its increased availability, high sensitivity and the fact there is no need of derivati-sation of the samples, as it is the case in GC/MS.
The book is structured with five chapters:
The first chapter deals with the general introduction of the prob-lem of pharmaceuticals as environmental contaminants thus indicating their sources and management options. The second part of the book comprises the largest part of the book and it is devoted to the analysis of pharmaceuticals and consists of 8 sub-chapters dealing with modern analytical techniques for the unequivocal detection of all main classes
of pharmaceuticals (antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, b-blockers, lipid regulating agents, sex hormones, X-ray contrast agents, psychi-atric drugs) in liquid (wastewater, surface, ground and drinking water) and solid matrices (soil, sediment, sludge). The chapter is mainly de-voted to highly sophisticated and established hyphenated mass spec-trometric methods such as LC-MS and LC-MS-MS and GC-MS. In addition, sample preparation methods are thoroughly evaluated for all groups of pharmaceuticals including their major metabolites. Finally, one sub-chapter also addresses the application of bioassays and bio-sensors for the analysis of pharmaceuticals in the environment.
The third chapter gives an overview on occurrence data in all en-vironmental compartments including sewage sludge, as well as trans-formation processes of pharmaceuticals in the environment, including photolysis and other processes and a final subchapter on an overview of toxicological data.
The fourth chapter deals with the removal of pharmaceuticals in wastewater and drinking water treatment, including also discussion of biotic and abiotic removal mechanisms. Of the treatment techniques discussed, not only conventional wastewater treatment (activated sludge) is evaluated, but also innovative treatment technologies such as membrane reactors and advanced oxidation processes.
Finally, the fifth chapter summarizes the current state of the art in the field and outline future trends and research needs.
Overall the present book is certainly timely since the interest and the developments on the analysis, fate and removal of pharmaceuticals in the environment have grown considerably during the last few years. This book will be of interest for a broader audience of analytical chem-ists and environmental scientists already working in the field of phar-maceuticals in the water cycle or newcomers who want to learn more about this emerging contamination problem
Finally, we would like to thank all the contributing authors of this book for their time and efforts in preparing their chapters. Without their cooperation and engagement this volume would certainly not have been possible. 


Editor’s prefaceAs Series Editor of CAC I feel that I have certain duties. The first one is to be able to acquire new titles for this successful series in the field of analytical chemistry. As a second duty I feel that myself I need to bring also titles from my own field of expertise. In this respect in 2003 I was coeditor of Volume 40 of the series on Analysis and Fate of Surfactants in the Aquatic Environment together with my two old friends, Thomas Knepper and Pim de Voogt,. In 2007, and ten volumes later, volume 50 is being published, and again I am co editor together with my colleague Mira Petrovic´ of the present book entitled Analysis, fate and Removal of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle.
Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment have been a topic of interest in conferences and in the literature since the last ten years. One of the reasons for the increasing concern on pharmaceuticals has certainly been the improvement on analytical techniques.
Nowadays, after sampling and conventional solid phase extraction of a surface river water sample followed by Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry it is possible to easily detect nanogram per litre level of common pharmaceutical residues in natural water samples. After analysis, environmental analytical chemists start to perform monitoring programme and this is the reason why every month several papers are being published covering the topic of occurrence of pharmaceutical res-idues in the water cycle, mainly surface waters and wastewaters.
The fate of pharmaceuticals during sewage treatment is a key issue, since wastewater treatment processes represent point source pollution of human pharmaceuuticals. Investigation on removal technologies is also of high interest to the scientific community, always linked to an-alytical chemistry, since engineers need of the high level of expertise of analytical chemists for the challenging task to determine pharmaceu-ticals residues at low nanogram per liter level in very complex waste-waters and sludge matrices. Finally the growing occurrence of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in the environment is pushing to tox-icological studies and publications on ecological and risk assessment. All the above mentioned topics have been included in the present book. So, analytical chemists will find a detailed chapter containing eight subchapters on analysis but at the same time the other chapters of the book will bring the necessary information to understand the problems related to the sources, fate, toxicity and removal of pharma-ceuticals.. The book brings a comprehensive view on the problems as-sociated with this new and emerging problem of pharmaceutical residues in the environment and it is addressed to a broad audience, from experts in the field to newcomers.
The book is also well balanced concerning the geographical location of the contributing authors, with US/Canada and European scientists, indicating a very similar problem to be tackled on both sides of the Atlantic ocean. Finally I would like to thank all the authors, many of them friends and colleagues since few years, for their efforts in com-piling the literature references and writing their book chapters. My special thanks to my co-worker and colleague at the Department, Mira Petrovic´, for her efforts and time spent communicating with the differ-ent contributors and correcting and harmonizing the different chapters of this comprehensive book on pharmaceuticals in the environment.


  

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