ad

Pharmaceuticals in the Environment Sources, Fate, Effects and Risks-Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (2008) 

Pharmaceuticals in the Environment Sources, Fate, Effects and Risks-Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (2008)

Pharmaceuticals in the environment are still a “hot bed” of interest. Since the publication of the first edition in 2001 and the second edition in 2004 the focus of research has changed again. In the meantime, we have learned quite a lot about the fate, effects, and risks associated with the presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic and terresrial environment. Anyway, there is still an increasing need for knowledge of pharmaceuticals in the environment.

The input and fate of parent compounds and the relative importance of different sources including compounds that up to now have only been scarcely investigated are still of interest. However, metabolites of human and animal metabolism are coming into focus. The same holds for products of transformation of parent compounds and metabolites in the environment, such as dead-end transformation products of biodegradation, oxidation or photolysis.

As it has been extensively demonstrated that the active compounds are present in the environment some of the interest in this field of research has moved from analysis of the compounds, which is still undertaken to effect studies to more extensive fate studies in the lab and in field trials. It has been found that environmental concentrations can cause effects in wildlife if proper tools are applied for effect assessment. The question of mixture toxicity has gained more and more attention. It has been learned that classical tests may underestimate effects and risks. The significance of antibiotic resistance in the environment is still not clear.

The long-awaited guideline for environmental risk assessment for human pharma-ceuticals in the European Union has been in force since December 2006. Accordingly, more work has been done in the field of risk assessment and risk management. For compounds already on the market that constitute by far the biggest share this guide-line is only applicable in case of the need for a renewal of the license. As for risk management strategies to eliminate pharmaceuticals from waste water or from the effluent of sewage treatment plants have been proposed and investigated. A tremendous amount of literature can now be found describing technical management measures such as oxidative or photolytic effluent treatment, filtering techniques, and application of char-coal. It has been learned however, that each of these approaches has its specific short-comings. Therefore, additional approaches such as including people handling and using the compounds, and focussing on the properties of the compounds (“green pharmacy”) have come into focus.

Accordingly, the 3rd edition has been largely changed again in comparison with the previous ones to address these new issues and the new lines of discussions and new findings. As in the previous editions, it gives an overview of the present state of knowledge presenting typical results and lines of discussion. Like the previous editions, this  one doesn’t claim to give a complete overview including the fully detailed body of knowledge of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Rather, it addresses important and typical topics. In contrast, it highlights the most important questions and issues related to the presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment. It also provides many new findings that raise new questions and confirm earlier results.

This edition contains four major parts. In the first part, specifics of pharmaceuticals that distinguish them from “classical” micro-pollutants are addressed. In the second part, new findings on sources, occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment are presented. In the third part, an overview of the current state of knowledge of effects of pharmaceuticals in in aquatic and terrestrial environmental is given. New, promising approaches to the study of the effects of pharmaceuticals in the environment are described. The fourth part addresses risk assessment issues starting with the EU guideline and practical experiences of its application. Shortcomings of the EU guidelines are discussed in several contributions. A brief description of the state of regulation of chemicals in Japan is also included. The final part is dedicated to risk management. As advanced STP effluent treatment as a management approach has already been addressed in the second edition and no generally new findings have been published since this time, only little space has been devoted to it. Instead mainly non technical approaches are presented here that are also of importance and are often overseen.

Accordingly, most of the contributions have replaced the ones of the second edition. They are addressing these new foci of research. The remaining ones have been updated. As a result, the 3rd edition is not only a revised and updated one but an additional new volume in a “series” of pharmaceuticals in the environment. The 1st and 2nd edition are still valuable sources of information and should be used together with this 3rd edition. Research needs are addressed within each chapter. Therefore, a separate chapter on research needs was omitted in this edition.

Again the edition of the book would have not been possible without the support of my co-workers in the research group of the Applied Environmental Research Section at the Department of Environmental Health Sciences at the Medical Center at Freiburg University. Special thanks to Radka Alexy, Petra Heiberger and Andreas Längin for their support of my daily routine, which gave me the necessary time to edit a book in such a dynamic field. Numerous discussions with colleagues, with contributors to the book and other people have been stimulating. Thank you to all those people who created the opportunity for discussion, the exchange of ideas and the sharing of results on the role of pharmaceuticals in the environment. This, as well as the encouraging comments and overwhelmingly positive feedback received for the second edition from many experts in the field encouraged the publisher and myself to publish a third edition. Thank you to Christian Witschel and his team from Springer Verlag Heidelberg who strongly supported the idea and helped to make the third edition possible. Thank you also to all the authors who gave up their precious time to contribute to this book.

A big thank you again to my wife Isolde, and my children Sarah and Yannik, with whom I was able to spend precious family time and without whose patience and encouragement neither this nor the preceding editions of the book would ever have been completed.

The first edition of “Pharmaceuticals in the Environment” was sold out within two years. This is quite surprising for a book on such a specialised topic. Obviously, pharmaceuticals in the environment, their fate, effects, and the risks associated with their presence there are a “hot bed” of interest.

Since publication of the first edition, so much literature on the topic has been pub-lished in journals and proceedings that it is hard to keep an overview. Most of these papers have been of an analytical nature. The majority deal with the detection of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, while others describe methods used to analyse pharmaceuticals in soil and the results of these analyses. The proportion of publications describing the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals in soils has increased since publication of the first edition. A minority of papers describe and assess the effects of pharmaceuticals on organisms in the aquatic environment and in the soil. The initiation of resistance and the selection of resistant bacteria in the environment has been addressed and intensively discussed. However, the significance of this topic is not yet clear. Furthermore, strategies to eliminate pharmaceuticals from waste water or from the effluent of STPs have been proposed and investigated. Introduction of restrictions relating to environmental aspects of pharmaceuticals are being discussed within the scope of EU regulatory procedure.

I have taken the opportunity provided by a second edition to revise and extend the book according to the enlarged body of knowledge on as yet unresolved, as well as newly emerging issues related to the input, occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment, as well as the risks which they pose. The new edition gives an over-view of the present state of knowledge with respect to typical results and lines of discussion. Like the first edition, this one makes no claim to give a complete overview of the state of the art of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Rather, it addresses important and typical topics and highlights the most important questions and issues related to the presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment. It also provides many new findings which raise new questions and confirm earlier results. The increased number of contributions and authors gathered in the second edition reflects with greater number of papers published, and of issues addressed, as well as the growing number of people from academia, official bodies and companies involved in the topic. It also reflects the intensified and ongoing discussions and the increased public awareness. Thus, in character, the second edition is more that of a general summary than was the case with the first edition.

The second edition of the book would have not been possible without the support of my co-workers in the research group of the Applied Environmental Research Section of the Freiburg University Hospital Institute of Environmental Medicine and Hospital Epidemiology. Special thanks to Radka Alexy for her support in my daily routine, which gave me the necessary time to edit a book in such a dynamic field. I greatly acknowledge the support of Franz Daschner, Director of the Institute of Environmental Medicine and Hospital Epidemiolgy. Numerous discussions with colleagues, with contributors to the book and other people have been stimulating. Thank you to all those people who created the opportunity for discussion, the exchange of ideas and the sharing of results on the role of pharmaceuticals in the environment. This, as well as the encouraging comments and positive feedback received to the first edition from many experts in the field encouraged the publisher and myself to publish a second edition so soon after the first edition. Thank you to Christian Witschel and his colleagues from SpringerVerlag Heidelberg, who strongly supported the idea and helped make the second edition possible. Thank you also to all the authors who gave up their precious time to contribute to this book.

A big thank you also to my wife Isolde, and my children Sarah and Yannik, with whom I was able to spend precious family time and without whose patience and encouragement neither this nor the first edition of the book would ever have been completed.

 

For Download Click on the following:

                                                     download

2 comments:

  1. I'd like to express my gratitude for writing such a helpful article. This article provided me with some useful knowledge. Thank you for sharing that. Keep up the good work. pharmacovigilance services providers

    ReplyDelete
  2. Great job for publishing such a nice article. Your article isn’t only useful but it is additionally really informative. Thank you because you have been willing to share information with us. Remote Pharmacist

    ReplyDelete