001. Pharmacokinetics is:

a) The study of biological and therapeutic effects of drugs

b) The study of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs (✓)

c) The study of mechanisms of drug action

d) The study of methods of new drug development002. What does “pharmacokinetics” include?

002. What does “pharmacokinetics” include?

a) Pharmacological effects of drugs

b) Unwanted effects of drugs (✓)

c) Chemical structure of a medicinal agent

d) Distribution of drugs in the organism

003. What does “pharmacokinetics” include?

a) Localization of drug action

b) Mechanisms of drug action

c) Excretion of substances (✓)

d) Interaction of substances

004. The main mechanism of most drugs absorption in GI tract is:

a) Active transport (carrier-mediated diffusion)

b) Filtration (aqueous diffusion)

c) Endocytosis and exocytosis

d) Passive diffusion (lipid diffusion) (✓)

005. What kind of substances can’t permeate membranes by passive diffusion?

a) Lipid-soluble

b) Non-ionized substances

c) Hydrophobic substances

d) Hydrophilic substances (✓)

006. A hydrophilic medicinal agent has the following property:

a) Low ability to penetrate through the cell membrane lipids (✓)

b) Penetrate through membranes by means of endocytosis

c) Easy permeation through the blood-brain barrier

d) High reabsorption in renal tubules

007. What is implied by «active transport»?

a) Transport of drugs trough a membrane by means of diffusion

b) Transport without energy consumption

c) Engulf of drug by a cell membrane with a new vesicle formation

d) Transport against concentration gradient (✓)

008. What does the term “bioavailability” mean?

a) Plasma protein binding degree of substance

b) Permeability through the brain-blood barrier

c) Fraction of an uncharged drug reaching the systemic circulation following any route administration (✓)

d) Amount of a substance in urine relative to the initial doze

009. The reasons determing bioavailability are:

a) Rheological parameters of blood

b) Amount of a substance obtained orally and quantity of intakes

c) Extent of absorption and hepatic first-pass effect (✓)

d) Glomerular filtration rate

010. Pick out the appropriate alimentary route of administration when passage of drugs through liver is minimized:

a) Oral

b) Transdermal

c) Rectal (✓)

d) Intraduodenal

011. Which route of drug administration is most likely to lead to the first-pass effect?

a) Sublingual

b) Oral. (✓)

c) Intravenously

d) Intramuscula

012. What is characteristic of the oral route?

a) Fast onset of effect

b) Absorption depends on GI tract secretion and motor function (✓)

c) A drug reaches the blood passing the liver

d) The sterilization of medicinal forms is obligatory

013. Tick the feature of the sublingual route:

a) Pretty fast absorption (✓)

b) A drug is exposed to gastric secretion

c) A drug is exposed more prominent liver metabolism

d) A drug can be administrated in a variety of doses

014. Pick out the parenteral route of medicinal agent administration:

a) Rectal

b) Oral

c) Sublingual

d) Inhalation (✓)

015. Parenteral administration:

a) Cannot be used with unconsciousness patients

b) Generally results in a less accurate dosage than oral administration

c) Usually produces a more rapid response than oral administration use  (✓)

d) Is too slow for emergency 

016. What is characteristic of the intramuscular route of drug administration?

a) Only water solutions can be injected

b) Oily solutions can be injected (✓)

c) Opportunity of hypertonic solution injections

d) The action develops slower, than at oral administration

017. Intravenous injections are more suitable for oily solutions:

a) True

b) False (✓)

018. Correct statements listing characteristics of a particular route of drug administration include all of the following EXCEPT:

a) Intravenous administration provides a rapid response

b) Intramuscular administration requires a sterile technique

c) Inhalation provides slow access to the general circulation (✓)

d) Subcutaneous administration may cause local irritation

019. Most of drugs are distributed homogeneously.

a) True

b) False (✓)

020. Biological barriers include all except:

a) Renal tubules (✓)

b) Cell membranes

c) Capillary walls

d) Placenta

021. What is the reason of complicated penetration of some drugs through brain-blood barrier?

a) High lipid solubility of a drug

b) Meningitis

c) Absence of pores in the brain capillary endothelium (✓)

d) High endocytosis degree in a brain capillary

022. The volume of distribution (Vd) relates:

a) Single to a daily dose of an administrated drug

b) An administrated dose to a body weight

c) An uncharged drug reaching the systemic circulation

d) The amount of a drug in the body to the concentration of a drug in plasma (✓)

023. For the calculation of the volume of distribution (Vd) one must take into account:

a) Concentration of a substance in plasma (✓)

b) Concentration of substance in urine

c) Therapeutical width of drug action

d) A daily dose of drug

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