Pharmacokinetics and Toxicokinetics (Mehdi Boroujerdi) (

The fields of pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics have made great progress since the introduc-tion of the term pharmacokinetics by Professor F. H. Dost in 1953. To cite tangible evidence of the growing interest in both disciplines, it would be sufficient just to consider the application of their principles in decision making by the regulatory agencies; the abundance of books, journals, and articles with the word pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics; and the permeation of the fields in all related basic and applied disciplines. In large measure, this progress parallels the remarkable growth of computing technology.

Combining pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics in one book stemmed from the most basic prin-ciple of science and pedagogy and the one most applicable to them, the Aristotle principle of non-contradiction, which is the second of the following three principles of “thought” or “logic”: 

       The principle of identity

       The principle of noncontradiction

       The principle of excluded middle


The principle of identity can simply be stated as A is equally the same as A and cannot be both A and not A at the same time and in the same sense, or “whatever is, is.” Stated differently, kinetics is kinetics and cannot be non-kinetics at the same time and in the same sense.

The principle of noncontradiction can be verbalized plainly as A cannot be both B and non-B at the same time and in the same sense, that is, “nothing can both be and not be.”  If one assumes that pharmacokinetics is different from toxicokinetics, or vice versa, then kinetics is the principle of only one and not the other.

The third principle is the principle of excluded middle, which means that a statement is either true or false and there is no middle ground between true and false; otherwise stated, the “principles of pharmacokinetics are the same as toxicokinetics” is either true or false and there is no position in-between. This book is written on the assertion that the principles of pharmacokinetics are the same as those of toxicokinetics and the congruence of the two fields is conclusive.

Therefore, the purpose of this book is to provide systematic overlapping principles of pharma-cokinetics and toxicokinetics. It covers a wide range of concepts basic to both fields and the math-ematics of modeling and interconnectivity of the topics. The emphasis is on the understanding of concepts and the governing principles of kinetics, and thus isolated details, theoretical and complex mathematics of stochastic modeling and neural networks, and computer-generated curves of pub-lished experimental data have been avoided.

The publisher deserves the author’s gratitude for their untiring efforts toward the goal of produc-ing a book of maximal utility to scientists, researchers, educators, and students.

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